Friday, January 30, 2009
Reviewed by Dr Philip Owen, consultant obstetrician and gynaecologist
Does a pregnant woman need to eat twice as much?It has often been said that a pregnant woman should eat for two people, but this is not true. What is true is that during pregnancy a woman has to provide good nutrition for two individuals. The growing baby gets all its nourishment from its mother through the umbilical cord, so diet is very important. If the mother is lacking in any vitamins and nutrients her baby might lack them too.If a woman has had trouble keeping her weight up or down before the pregnancy, she should make a nutritional plan with the help of her doctor or midwife.
How much energy does a woman need during pregnancy?
A woman who is not pregnant needs approximately 2100 calories per day.
A pregnant woman needs approximately 2500 calories per day.
A breastfeeding woman needs approximately 3000 calories per day.
Calories are sometimes called Kilocalories or KCals.
What sort of food should pregnant women eat?
A well-balanced diet should contain something from all the food groups: dairy products, fruit, vegetables, fish, meat, eggs, fat and carbohydrates. A pregnant woman needs to eat something from all these food groups every day in order to get the proper amounts of energy.
Approximately 10 per cent of calories should come from protein. Protein is mainly found in meat, fish, eggs, dairy products and beans.
Approximately 35 per cent of calories should come from fat, which is mainly found in butter, oils, margarine, dairy products and nuts.
Approximately 55 per cent of calories should come from carbohydrates, which are found in bread, pasta, potatoes, rice, corn and other grain products.
What other vitamins and minerals are essential during pregnancy?
Folic acid During the first three months of pregnancy (and preferably before becoming pregnant) a woman needs folic acid. This is one of the B-group vitamins and is also known as vitamin B9. It is important during pregnancy for the creation of the baby's nervous system. Folic acid can help prevent neural tube defects such as spina bifida and other congenital malformations such as cleft palate or cleft lip. Good natural sources of folic acid are barley beans, fruit, green vegetables, orange juice, lentils, peas and rice.
It is recommended that all pregnant women take a daily 400 microgram supplement of folic acid a day for two months before conception and three months into their pregnancy. The dosage of the supplement should be larger - 5mg per day - if a woman has previously given birth to a child with a neural tube defect, if she or her partner has spina bifida or a family history of neural tube defects, or if she has coeliac disease (or other malabsorption state), diabetes mellitus, sickle-cell anaemia, or is taking antiepileptic medicines. She should discuss this matter with her doctor.
IronDuring pregnancy, a woman's body needs more iron than usual to produce all the blood needed to supply nutrition to the placenta. Good sources of iron are green vegetables such as broccoli and spinach, strawberries, muesli and wholemeal bread. Iron is more easily absorbed if it is taken in conjunction with vitamin C - either as a supplement or in citrus fruit or juice. Tea and coffee can interfere with the body's absorption of iron. It is often recommended that all pregnant women take an iron supplement every day from the 20th week of pregnancy. This is not necessary if a woman has a good diet and routine blood tests show that she is not anaemic. Iron supplements may cause constipation.
Zinc and calciumThe minerals zinc and calcium are also needed for the development of the embryo. However, it is usually possible to obtain enough zinc and calcium by following a varied diet.
What foods should be avoided during pregnancy?
It is important to avoid vitamin A during pregnancy because it may cause damage to the embryo. Foods containing large amounts of vitamin A include liver, and should be eaten on an occasional basis only. Unpasteurised cheeses, blue-veined cheeses and pâté are also not recommended because of the possible risk of transmission of infectious diseases such as Listeria.How to avoid constipation Constipation during pregnancy can be caused by hormonal changes that cause the intestines to move less. Iron supplements can also cause constipation. To avoid constipation, eat lots of fibre-rich foods such as fruit, vegetables, wholemeal bread and cereal, prunes and prune juice. Drinking 2 to 3 litres of water each day will also help prevent constipation by keeping stools moist.
Regular exercise will also help get the intestines moving. About 20 to 30 minutes' swimming or brisk walking two to three times a week is a good level of exercise to aim for. A pharmacist will be able to provide advice about over-the-counter preparations that are safe to use during pregnancy to relieve constipation.
How much weight should a woman gain during pregnancy?
It is considered normal to gain 10 to 12kg (22 to 26lb).
For practical reasons the pregnancy is divided into three periods:
the first period runs from week 0 to 12 where it is normal to gain 1 to 2kg (2 to 4lb).
the second period runs from weeks 12 to 28 in which it is normal to gain 300 to 400g (10 to 14oz) a week.
the third period runs from weeks 28 to 40 and it is normal to gain 1 to 3kg (2 to 6lb) a month.It is not necessary to be obsessive about your weight during pregnancy.
Many obstetricians have stopped weighing women other than at their first visit because the information is of little use in detecting problems with the mother or her baby.However, excess weight gain is probably best avoided since most women will want to return to the same dress size within a few months of delivery.
Where do the extra kilos come from?
A total weight increase of about 11.2kg (24lb) is normal.
A baby weighs approximately 3.5kg (7lb 11oz) before birth.
The uterus grows to approximately 900g (1lb 14oz).
The placenta weighs approximately 650g (1lb 6oz).
The amniotic fluid weighs approximately 800g (1lb 12oz).
The woman's breasts grow by approximately 400g (14oz).
The weight of the extra blood is approximately 1.25kg (2lb 12oz).
Water retained in the body tissues weighs approximately 2kg (4lb 6oz).
The layer of fat beneath the skin weighs approximately 1.7kg (3lb 11oz).
Thursday, January 29, 2009
I ada masalah dimana lately ni i selalu batuk malam and sampai x bley tido langsung, so tadi i pegi jumpe Dr. untuk mengetahui apa masalah i so Dr. ckp mungkin i ni ada lelah sbb i batuk di waktu malam....ianya biasa bagi ibu mengadung yang senang diserang lelah.
Setau i kalu lelah x bley bela kucing kan? and i ada baca dimana kuman toxoplasma yang dibawa oleh kucing amat berbahaya bagi kandungan dan bulu kucing bley mengakibatkan lelah...so masalah i skarang i ada 5 ekor kucing dirumah dan sangat lah sayang kt diorg semua...i xsampai ati nak bagi kt org and diorg la teman i waktu Mr. husband keje malam so macam mane ek...any suggestion? i betul2 da buntu tapi i mmg sayang mereka, kalu i just abaikan je bley? wat cam biasa je cume i xkan tukar litter box die i sruh Mr. Husband je yang buat amcam?
Wednesday, January 28, 2009
Pada pagi 25 januari 2009 i tergerak ati nak wat pregnancy test cos i punya period da lambt 4 hari so tersangatlah terkejut nya sbb result menandakan i da pregnant hehehehe...so tersangatlah gembira yang x terkata...walaupun sedang dalam konflik dgn mr. hubby dengan x malunya terus i tunjukkan i punye pregnancy test to mr hubby yang sedang tdo dan buat terkial2 mcm xpaham hehehehe then bile da baca betul2 baru la die sengeh dan ktorg pun ok hakhakhak biasa la gaduh sbb pembawakan budak la katakan hikhikhik
Tapi sepanjang seminggu sebelum i dapat tau i pregnant ari2 i nak makan steamboat sup hehehe smpai my fren pun da nk muntah makan mende tu time lunch hehehehe...tapi i prefer seafood la xtau nape hikhik.. xtau la takut kebetulan or ngade2 je huhuhu
smalam pegi checkup dr ckp i pnye kandungan baru 3 minggu ke satu bulan due date on 29.09.2009 amacm cantek x due date i hahahaha tapi i x rase branak on dat date hehehe
Wednesday, January 21, 2009
My big Family
Tuesday, January 20, 2009
Ari ni adalah hari terakhir boss i dato' haji mohd kharuddin mohd ali berkhidmat di Pasdec Holdings Berhad, sedey jgk rasenye lepas ni i kene tunggu boss baru la nampaknye huhuhu...
Hari ini diadakan majlis farewell untuk my boss , i rase sedey jgk la lepas ni i xtau nk marah sape and nk kene marah ngan sape heehehee then xde lagi org yang mintak ape2 and nk secepat mungkin...telephone i pun akan sunyi tanpa panggilan hangit ahakss hurmmm... a word to describe my boss ni is "workholic" die punya keje xde limit smpai 5.15p.m . Mlm pun die still kerja tapi sometimes i kesian jgk dgan pegawai2 yang lain kene call tengah2 malam oleh my boss...walau ape pun die tetap boss yang pemurah, baik hati dan sporting die suke dengar lagu dendangan titiek puspa and jgn main2 tau my boss ni big fan lagu band2 indonesia, kadang2 kalah i lagu2 baru sume die tau hikhikhik... sometimes siap tolong burn kt i lagi oopps....hehehe...hurmm i dedicate this song to you boss, hope you enjoy ur retirement and we gonna miss you dato'!! take care ;p
Monday, January 19, 2009
Wednesday, January 14, 2009
ok let me start k...
1. Mase i umur 6 tahun tanpa mengetahui ape2 my mak kejutkan i pagi then cakap i kene pegi sekolah, hurmm mase tu mmg blur giler la apekehenye tetibe soh i pegi skolah heheheh so sbagai anak yg solehah i akur je cewahhhh hakhak...i tatau pun bile my mak beli baju skolah beg skolah dsb so i just pakai je la ape yg disediakan...so bermulala saat pertama aku ke tadika perpaduan transit quarters kuantan.... first day mmg xde masaalah cos i mmg jenis indipendent tapi yg peliknye kenapa budak2 kt sekolah tu kecik dari i and i sorang je yang tinggi heheheh may b mmg i ni jenis tinggi kot hikhikhikhik tapi yg xdpt dilupakan is hari sabtu i nanges meraung nak pergi sekolah then my mak pakaikan baju skolah kt i dan antar i pegi tadika tapi pelik xde org pun kt sane...i pun xnanges dah la pastu cuak pandang mak i kt sblah then my mak ckp pegi la skolah tu kalau awk nk bekawan gan hantu heheheheh...then baru i tau xpyh pegi skolah hari sabtu ahad lkdjfeowfgja;j :p
hurmm tu la benda yang i xkan lupe smpai bile2 hehehe biase la i ni mmg dari kecik sampai la besar mmg jenis blur sket heheheh org da kt langit i baru nk panjat pokok hikhik
ok let me introduce my self nama i tengku noor azlilawati tengku mohamed lahir pada 16 julai 1982 di kuantan... anak ke 6 dari 6 adik beradik means i bongsu la ahakss...dibesarkan dengan penuh kasih sayang oleh kedua ibu bapa... tapi sayang mak yang dikasihi telah menyahut panggilan ilahi pada 18 ogos 2005. (al-fatihah)
i mempunyai keluarga yang besar disebabkan i yang bongsu dan semua adik bradik da kawen so pepaham la brape ramai i pnye anak sedara, bile time raye mmg terase la kekopakkan wallet i ni.
hurmm jam da kul 5.20 ni i da nk balik keje memandangkan i baru start blogging ni bnyk lagi yang i nk cerita so esok i sambung lagi k bye..bye..